Back to school time means back to sports. Before training begins you will often be required to complete a pre-participation athletic screening. Generally, this involves filling out a form that asks you questions about your medical history and your family’s.
Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy
For most athletes, the screening stops there. However, when a physician feels that an athlete’s history or symptoms should be assessed further, an electrocardiogram (also called ECG or EKG) may be performed.
Assessing your heart health
ECGs monitor your heart’s electrical signals to determine if any irregularities exist and, in athletes, may help assess cardiovascular health for sports participation.
During an ECG, several small sticky patches, called electrodes, are placed on your arms, legs, and chest and then attached by cables to a machine that then records heart activity onto a long sheet of paper. The test takes about five to 10 minutes.
Testing for all remains controversial
While ECG testing isn’t part of most pre-participation sports screenings in America, some sports teams do require ECG testing before you get on the field (or track or court, if that’s more your thing). What’s more, some independent and non-profit organizations offer ECG testing in training facilities and high schools. The intention of these programs is to help prevent cases of sudden cardiac death—the leading cause of death among young athletes.
However, the use of ECGs as an initial screening tool remains controversial. While proponents say that ECGs can pick up underlying heart problems, critics maintain that across-the-board electrocardiograms are not proven to be effective in identifying at-risk athletes and preventing sudden cardiac death.
Furthermore, false positives can lead to unnecessary emotional stress, testing, and even disqualification from sports. Finally, some cardiac abnormalities that put athletes at risk are not seen on an ECG.
It’s important to remember that physical inactivity is a killer and that the risk of sudden death during sporting activity is very rare. So, at this time, the American Heart Association advises against administering ECGs to athletes who haven’t experience heart-related symptoms or have a family or personal history of heart complications.
Testing your heart’s ‘electrical system’
If you do undergo an ECG, you may wonder what exactly it’s examining: your heart’s electrical activity.
If you remember from biology class, the heart is composed of two upper and two lower chambers. Every time your heart beats, it goes through a very coordinated sequence of events. An electrical impulse fires in the upper chambers, causing them to contract while the lower chambers relax and blood flows into them. That impulse then zips down into the lower chambers, resulting in the upper chambers relaxing while the lower chambers contract, pushing blood to the rest of your body. This happens over and over again. (50 to 80 times per minute at rest, and upward of 200 times per minute at peak exertion!)
Thus, your ECG results, displayed as a series of bumps and spikes, represent the electrical activity with each phase of the heartbeat. These results show if the heart’s rate, rhythm and function are all normal at rest.
‘Normal’ is different for every athlete
However, “normal” is a bit of a misnomer. No two hearts are exactly the same and athletic training can cause changes in the electrical pattern that make it look different from “normal.” Your age, sex, ethnicity, fitness level and sport-specific training can all influence the waveforms displayed on your ECG. For instance, a marathon runner’s heart may be very different from a weightlifter’s heart — and it shows on an ECG.
Sometimes these changes can look similar to ones that would indicate a major heart abnormality in a non-athlete. This is one reason why it’s important that the person reviewing your ECG is experienced in treating athletes.
How a sports cardiologist can help
If you do have an abnormal ECG, you will be referred to a cardiologist — hopefully a sports cardiologist. He or she will review your medical and family history, ask you about symptoms you may be having with training, examine your heart, and, if appropriate, send you for further testing to clarify whether the changes are related to normal athletic adaptation or represent a cardiac abnormality.
In most cases, further testing reveals that the patient’s heart is simply a healthy athlete’s heart. Occasionally, however, minor heart problems are identified and treated before the athlete is allowed to get back on the field.
In the rare, but potentially lifesaving case that a major heart abnormality is found, athletes may be required to stop participation in sports. Why? Athletes routinely place their hearts and bodies under extreme stress. For those with certain heart abnormalities, there’s an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, especially during intense periods of exercise, so avoiding extreme physical exertion can be lifesaving.
While, as athletes, we never want anything to stand between us and the sports we love, it’s important to remember that, left ignored, heart abnormalities can and do prove fatal to athletes—even teen ones.
Why your health history matters
So this season, remember that pre-participation forms are more than a formality.
Answering honestly about your family history as well as how you feel during exercise (for example: Do you get dizzy? Does your heart race? Do you experience chest pain or shortness of breath?) can provide valuable insight into your heart health, keeping you safe on the field, and even improving your performance. And sometimes, yes, that might mean getting an ECG.