Your Feet Hold Clues to Clogged Arteries
Clogged arteries in your legs or arms can signal potentially lethal blocked coronary arteries. Read more to learn who should be tested and who should not.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a buildup of cholesterol and plaque in the arteries that lead to the extremities.
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PAD can cause discomfort in your legs and feet, and limit your walking and activities. Severe PAD can progress to loss of limb. Your doctor can check for signs of the disease with a simple test of pulses in your feet.
When cholesterol buildup blocks the arteries to your heart, we call this condition coronary artery disease (CAD).
In reality, PAD and CAD are associated with a single disease, atherosclerosis, which is a buildup of cholesterol in the arteries throughout the body. Sometimes the presence of PAD indicates an increased risk for heart disease, so screening and awareness of the connection between PAD and CAD is important.
The simplest test to screen for PAD is to have your physician check for the pulses in your feet during a routine physical exam. In each foot, there should be two pulses that are easily detected by a trained physician. This test is performed to determine whether the blood flow to your feet is normal.
The next step in screening is the ankle brachial index, which uses blood pressure cuffs on your arm and leg in combination with a Doppler probe, which uses an ultrasound wave, to help us hear the pulse in the foot. Using this technology, we can better assess the blood flow to the area. For most people, blood pressure in the foot should be similar to the blood pressure in the arm. A drop of as little as 10 percent in that pressure can be an indication of peripheral artery disease.
You might have encountered offers for “comprehensive” screening/testing at community events, offered by for-profit companies, or surgical or interventional groups. These screenings often cover a wide range of conditions — everything from osteoporosis to coronary artery disease. You are probably better off being seen by your primary care doctor, who knows you best, to find out whether you ought to have a specific test performed. There’s no proof of benefit to generic testing, and it can have unforeseen consequences, including false positive results that put you at risk for other invasive, unnecessary procedures.
People whose legs are painful or get tired easily or who have trouble walking distances should have an assessment for PAD. Current or past smokers, or anyone with a family history of PAD or symptoms of the disease, should also be assessed.
Screening for PAD probably doesn’t make sense for a healthy individual without symptoms, who is younger than 60 years old, has never smoked and has no family history of atherosclerosis or heart disease.
In this case, screening may actually expose a patient to more risk. This is because the tests can occasionally be incorrect and lead to much more invasive testing, which has its own inherent risks.
It’s important to remember that atherosclerosis is not a localized process; it is a systemic disease that affects the arteries everywhere in the body.
Medication and lifestyle changes, including stopping smoking, are very important for patients who have any evidence of a decrease in the blood flow in their legs and feet.
Contributor: Daniel Clair, MD