The number of women giving birth via cesarean section has been steadily increasing over the past 20 years, with about one out of every three U.S. babies born via C-section today, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC).
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While C-sections are sometimes necessary to save lives, many women are opting to schedule them when they aren’t medically necessary, says the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The rapidly rising rate of C-sections among low-risk births has sparked the Department of Health and Human Services to set a national goal of reducing the number of low-risk birth C-sections by 10 percent by the year 2020. This figure does not include C-sections that are medically necessary for health of the mother or the baby.
Risks for mom and baby
Going through labor and having a vaginal delivery can be a long process that can be physically taxing for the mother. But C-sections come with risks for the mother, including risks from anesthesia, blood loss, infection, a longer recovery period and a higher risk for postpartum depression, says ob/gyn Rebecca Starck, MD.
There also are potential risks for a baby born via C-section.
Babies undergo a process during a vaginal birth that readies their lungs, which are filled with fluid in the womb, to breathe oxygen after birth, Dr. Starck says. Babies born via C-section often have respiratory issues with extra fluid in their lungs at birth because they don’t have the chance to undergo this process.
Babies born vaginally also receive a dose of good bacteria as they travel through the birth canal, Dr. Starck says. This may boost the baby’s immune system and protect the intestinal tract.
Births after a C-section
Some women assume that because their first baby was born via C-section that all of their children will have to be born this way. Many women worry that the scars from the C-section will open with a subsequent pregnancy, Dr. Starck says.
“In fact, the likelihood of the uterus scar splitting open is a very low risk. There’s generally less than a 1 percent chance of that happening,” Dr. Starck says. “We encourage most women to consider and try a vaginal birth after a cesarean section.”
A healthy baby is the goal
In the end, the decision around a vaginal birth or a C-section should focus on delivering a healthy baby, Dr. Starck says.
“We want to support a healthy delivery and a healthy baby,” Dr. Starck says. “Sometimes there is a medical reason that a delivery doesn’t end up as a vaginal birth to keep either the mother or the baby safe. But to decide on a C-section for a non-medical reason may not be in the best interest of mom or her baby.”
Dr. Starck says she often reminds her patients that while the unpredictability of labor can seem frightening, it’s really just the first step in learning about the unpredictability of being a parent.