Your son or daughter comes home from a game, practice or the playground and is limping and complaining about ankle pain. Could something be sprained, strained or – even worse – broken?
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It’s very possible. After about age 6, these injuries become much more likely as children start playing sports and becoming more active.
Playing sports such as soccer or basketball — even just jumping off a moving swing at the playground — can cause an ankle sprain or fracture, while constant use of certain muscles can cause painful strains.
The most common ankle injuries are:
- Growth plate injuries — Growth plates are areas of cartilage located near the ends of bones. They are the last portion of a child’s bones to harden, and so are particularly vulnerable to injury in the growing skeleton.
- Strains — overstretched or torn muscles. Strains can happen after trauma, such as overexertion or not warming up properly. They also can be caused by repetitive overuse.
- Fractures — broken bones. Most fractures happen when a player rolls or twists an ankle on an uneven surface, such as when stepping into a hole or onto another player’s foot. A player also may be hit directly by another player or run into an immovable object like a goalpost. Sometimes it happens when a player changes direction too quickly or sharply, rotating the ankle abnormally. In addition to trauma, repetitive overuse also can cause broken bones called stress fractures.
How to tell the difference? It’s best for parents to focus on deciding if the injury needs medical attention, says foot and ankle surgeon Alan Davis, MD, who also specializes in sports health.
“Unless you know anatomy, it’s usually difficult to differentiate between a sprain, strain and fracture,” Dr. Davis says. “It’s more important for parents to know how urgently an injury needs physician attention, if at all.”
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When your child needs a doctor
According to Dr. Davis, your child’s ankle injury needs a doctor’s attention if there is:
- Significant swelling
- Bone misalignment
- Severe pain not resolved with non-weight-bearing
- Marked tenderness to the touch
- Inability to walk, move the ankle or put weight on it
- Change in color (e.g., the ankle or foot is turning blue)
- Bleeding or a break in the skin
Dr. Davis says to make sure to check the foot for any tenderness even though your child may be reporting ankle pain.
“These are signs of a serious injury that require immediate treatment,” Dr. Davis says. “Your child may need a splint, brace, boot or cast. If there’s significant damage, or risk of damage to the growth plate, surgery may be necessary.”
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Ankle injuries that don’t require medical attention
If the pain is not severe, there is full range of ankle motion, normal strength, sensation and no mis-alignment, there is no reason to rush to a doctor, Dr. Davis says.
First, treat the injury at home with the RICE method:
Rest — Stay off the injured ankle to prevent more damage.
Ice — Apply a cold pack or ice bag (in a towel) for up to 20 minutes to reduce swelling and ease pain. Repeat four to eight times a day.
Compression — Wrap the ankle with an elastic bandage or compression wrap to help reduce swelling.
Elevation — Keep the ankle raised by resting it on a pillow or other elevated surface above heart level to reduce swelling and pain.
“If symptoms get worse, then call your doctor,” Dr. Davis says.
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How to prevent ankle injury
The best way to help your child avoid ankle injury is with proper physical conditioning for the sport. That includes:
- Having good flexibility, balance and endurance
- Warming up before activity
- Getting enough rest
- Staying hydrated
- Eating properly before practices and games
Wearing appropriate shoes also is important, Dr. Davis says.
“Not all athletic shoes are the same,” Dr. Davis says. “The right shoe depends on your child’s sport with its specific demands, along with your child’s individual foot structure, such as arch height. Shoes always should be fit for sport by an experienced professional. Take him or her to a running shoe store where professionals can help with fitting.”
Wraps and braces usually are not necessary for young athletes who are properly conditioned and have no previous injury, Dr. Davis says.
Pediatric orthopaedic treatment guide