Is It COVID-19, a Cold or Seasonal Allergies?

How to tell the difference with overlapping symptoms

Maybe you’ve developed a cough or you’ve noticed some shortness of breath. While it could be any number of things, it’s not unusual for your mind to wander to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. With the delta variant causing a new surge, it’s understandable you might be worried about a breakthrough case or contracting the disease.

Advertising Policy

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

But don’t panic! There are other possible explanations that have nothing to do with the outbreak at all. It’s a time of year when both the common cold and seasonal allergies are widespread and still wreaking the usual havoc on our health. 

You might be experiencing one or several symptoms, including fever, coughing, headaches, sneezing, watery or itchy eyes, even some trouble breathing. What does it all mean?

Here’s a look at what these symptoms may mean, how you can tell them apart, and what you can do.

Check for a fever

According to Michael Benninger, MD, a fever is the main symptom to helping determine what illness you might have. A fever could mean the flu or any number of other things, including, yes, coronavirus. 

A report from the World Health Organization (WHO) that examined cases in China in February 2020 revealed the initial list of COVID-19 symptoms. That report found that around 88% of COVID-19 patients had a fever and 68% had a dry cough. Additional symptoms of COVID-19 include shortness of breath and difficulty breathing, sore throat, diarrhea, fatigue, chills, muscle pain, loss of taste and smell and body aches. 

Over a year and a half later, little has changed in terms of the primary COVID-19 symptoms and a loss of taste or smell is usually a sign that COVID-19 is the offending illness.

Advertising Policy

But it’s rare to find a fever or diarrhea associated with the common cold or seasonal allergies, Dr. Benninger notes. And while some COVID-19 patients have been asymptomatic, differentiating between what your body is dealing with is also a matter of looking at all of the symptoms as a whole. “It’s a matter of taking a logical approach to symptoms,” he adds.

Allergies or a cold?

If a fever isn’t present and you’re not showing signs of difficulty breathing or diarrhea, then you’re likely dealing with a common cold or seasonal allergies

“We’re getting into the allergy season so we know that it’s going to be very difficult for a lot of people at this time to distinguish between their allergies and whether or not they have something more significant,” says Dr. Benninger.

While sneezing is often associated with both allergies and a cold, there are other symptoms that can help you differentiate. “Usually a cold doesn’t have itchy eyes,” says Dr. Benninger. “If you have a cough, that’s more strongly associated with a common cold than allergies unless you have allergic asthma.”

Keep your asthma in check

While difficulty breathing and shortness of breath have been symptoms associated with COVID-19, it can also be signs of asthma that can flare up with the allergy season. If you don’t have a fever present with these symptoms, asthma could be the culprit.

People with asthma need to stay on top of their treatment, says Dr. Benninger, especially since people with respiratory issues are at a higher risk of potentially severe illness from coronavirus. Whether it’s inhalers or nasal sprays, it’s important to be up to date on their medication and proper usage. 

Advertising Policy

Dr. Benninger also recommends starting allergy medications early in the allergy season rather than waiting for the worst part.

“If you can prevent the symptoms from worsening, then you’re much more likely to have less difficulty when you get to the time of the season when allergies tend to get out of control,” he says.

Get tested

If you feel the need, there is one way to tell if what you have is COVID-19 as opposed to a cold or allergies: get a test. While test availability was limited in the early stages of the pandemic, getting a test via your doctor’s office is now much easier. And there are now several over-the-counter COVID-19 tests available at varying prices at your local pharmacy.

If your symptoms indicate COVID-19 and remain mild, then you can save yourself the money and properly isolate yourself as needed, alongside other precautions. But since there is overlap in some symptoms, getting a test can prove helpful as well as bring you peace of mind, especially if you’re around high-risk people.

And, finally, while you can’t get a vaccine to prevent a common cold, you can get vaccinated against COVID-19. While breakthrough cases have been documented, getting vaccinated greatly reduces the risk of infection and serious illness and hospitalization if you do happen to get infected.

Advertising Policy