December 6, 2022/Nutrition

Top Benefits of Vitamin K

It helps your bones stay strong and your blood clot, but it may also do so much more


Vitamin K is a busy nutrient: It’s involved in building healthy bones and helps your blood clot so injuries can heal.


Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

You typically get enough vitamin K through food. Vitamin K occurs mainly in plant-based foods and fermented products like sauerkraut. You can also buy vitamin K as a nutritional supplement. But unless you have a diagnosed vitamin K deficiency, it’s better to get your K from foods.

“By eating a balanced diet, you should be able to meet your needs for Vitamin K,” says registered dietitian Julia Zumpano, RD, LD. “It’s good to know which foods are rich in this essential vitamin that does so much for our bodies in case your diet is falling short, so you can make any adjustments needed.”

What is vitamin K?

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin (meaning it dissolves in fat). It helps your body develop and function properly. There are two types of vitamin K, which come from different sources:

  • Vitamin K1, or phylloquinone (pronounced “fil-oh-kwi-nohn”): This more common type is found mostly in plant foods, especially green leafy vegetables like spinach and kale.
  • Vitamin K2, or menaquinone (pronounced “men-ah-kwi-nohn”): This less common type is found in some animal foods and fermented products. Gut bacteria in your body also produce this type. Check out these foods highest in vitamin K2.

What does vitamin K do?

Some studies suggest that what vitamin K does for your body may go beyond bones and blood. It may help ease morning sickness and protect cognitive (mental) ability. Vitamin K may even reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease and death. And recently, researchers found that a form of vitamin K acts as an antioxidant that could be a key in preventing Alzheimer’s disease and other conditions.

More research is needed, but we do know vitamin K plays an important role in both blood clotting and bone strengthening.

1. Assists with blood clotting

One of vitamin K’s most important jobs is to make four of the 13 proteins needed for blood clotting. Blood clots stop your injuries or wounds from bleeding so they can heal. The “K” comes from the Danish and German word koagulation (coagulation) or clotting.

This is a great benefit of vitamin K. But it also means that you need to be careful. People taking blood-thinning drugs, such as warfarin (Coumadin®) anticoagulant medication, shouldn’t take vitamin K supplements or consume large amounts of vitamin K without talking to their healthcare provider. Vitamin K can interfere with the effectiveness of these medications.

“In most cases, it’s a matter of maintaining steady vitamin and medication levels,” says Zumpano. “A sudden change can cause dangerous bleeding or blood clots.”


2. Strengthens bones

Vitamin K strengthens your bones by helping make osteocalcin, which helps prevent low bone density. But whether it can treat or prevent bone problems remains to be seen.

Some studies indicate that a higher daily intake of vitamin K reduces the risk of bone fractures and low bone density (osteopenia). In some countries (though not in the U.S.), healthcare providers even prescribe vitamin K supplements to treat osteoporosis.

“A lot of other factors can affect bone health, including a lack of calcium and vitamin D,” says Zumpano. “We need more rigorous studies to establish the link before we can confidently recommend vitamin K supplements.”

What foods have vitamin K?

Foods rich in vitamin K are mainly green leafy vegetables like spinach, kale, broccoli, cabbage and lettuce. Other foods with vitamin K include fruits (blueberries, figs and canned pumpkin are good sources) and olive, soybean or canola oil. It’s also found in smaller amounts in meat, eggs and dairy products like cheese, yogurt and butter

“People who eat a vegetarian diet are in luck when it comes to this essential vitamin,” notes Zumpano. “You can definitely find it in other foods, but a plate of leafy greens can’t be beat when it comes to vitamin K.”

Consider: Half a cup of collard greens, frozen or boiled, contains 530 micrograms (mcg) — 442% of your suggested daily amount of vitamin K. And a 3-ounce serving of nattō (fermented soybeans) has 850 mcg (708%).

The best time to take vitamin K is after you’ve eaten foods that contain fat. This helps you maximize its absorption.

How much vitamin K per day do I need?

Your recommended vitamin K intake (in micrograms) is:

6 to 11 months*
Recommended Dietary Allowance
2.5 mcg
12 to 23 months*
Recommended Dietary Allowance
30 mcg
2 to 18 years (assigned female at birth, AFAB)
Recommended Dietary Allowance
30 to 75 mcg
Over 18 years (AFAB)
Recommended Dietary Allowance
90 mcg
2 to 18 (assigned male at birth, AMAB)
Recommended Dietary Allowance
30 to 75 mcg
Over 18 years (AMAB)
Recommended Dietary Allowance
120 mcg
Pregnant or lactating
Recommended Dietary Allowance
75 to 90 mcg

*Adequate Intake
Source: 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Vitamin K breaks down very quickly in your body. Any excess leaves in your urine or poop. This means it rarely reaches dangerous (toxic) levels, even when you have a lot.

Do I need to take vitamin K supplements?

Most multivitamin-mineral supplements contain vitamin K, especially supplements for bone health. But in most cases, you don’t need to take supplements if you’re getting enough of what you need from food.

If you suspect you may lack vitamin K, talk with your healthcare provider about next steps. Your symptoms and a blood test can confirm diagnosis and guide treatment.

“There’s no shortage of delicious and widely available foods that contain vitamin K,” says Zumpano. “Vitamin K helps with some of our body’s most critical functions, so we need to take it seriously. And that means eating well, so we can live well.”

Learn more about our editorial process.

Related Articles

Person prepping different foods in kitchen
March 20, 2024/Nutrition
What Vitamins You Should Take Is a Personalized Decision

There are several vitamins and mineral supplements that many people can benefit from — but it’s important to consult with a healthcare provider before you start one

foods with fat soluble vitamins
May 16, 2023/Nutrition
Fat-Soluble Vitamins: What They Are and How To Get the Most Out of Them

Vitamins A, D, E and K stay in your body longer and are best eaten with a bit of healthy fat

person taking vitamins from pill organizer
April 18, 2023/Diet, Food & Fitness
Yes, You Can Take Too Much Vitamin D and Vitamin K

It’s always best to talk to a healthcare provider before taking any supplements to avoid toxicity

Chicken with blueberry sauce is loaded with vitamin K.
April 11, 2023/Nutrition
Try These 21 Healthy Foods Full of Vitamin K

From leafy greens to heart-healthy oils, the selection is abundant

Vitamin K supplements in foreground with leafy veggies rich in vitamin K in background
Do You Need Vitamin K Supplements for Your Bone Health?

Understanding the role of this vitamin (and where to find it!)

Beef cut, chicken breast, cod filet and ground beef, with spices and seasoning
April 5, 2024/Nutrition
Are You Eating Enough Choline-Rich Foods?

This vital nutrient helps your brain and body in many ways — and most of us need more of it

Variety of foods that contain the antioxidant lutein
April 4, 2024/Nutrition
What Is Lutein? Learn About Its Health Benefits

This powerful carotenoid can help with your eye and skin health, LDL reduction and cognitive function

Turkey wrap cut in half on butcher board, with lettuce, tomato, cheese, onion
April 3, 2024/Nutrition
Is Your Sandwich Healthy? What About Your Wrap?

Wrapped or sandwiched, try to choose fillings and condiments that are minimally processed, low in saturated fat and high in fiber

Trending Topics

Person in yellow tshirt and blue jeans relaxing on green couch in living room reading texts on their phone.
Here’s How Many Calories You Naturally Burn in a Day

Your metabolism may torch 1,300 to 2,000 calories daily with no activity

woman snacking on raisins and nuts
52 Foods High In Iron

Pump up your iron intake with foods like tuna, tofu and turkey