Chubby cheeks are adorably pinch-worthy on babies. But when chubby babies become kids and adolescents with excess weight, they may be at risk for a lifetime of weight and health challenges.
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“Kids who struggle with their weight in childhood are more at risk for all of the chronic medical conditions that overweight adults are prone to – like type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke,” says nurse practitioner Jennifer Brubaker, PhD, FNP-BC. She’s part of the multidisciplinary team in the Cleveland Clinic’s BeWell Kids Clinic for children with obesity and associated issues.
Nearly one in five children in the U.S. has obesity, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “It’s one of the greatest challenges our kids face today, because in general they’re doing less physical activity and are exposed to a variety of unhealthy options, like junk/processed food and excessive screen time,” Brubaker says.
If your child has overweight, you assume an important role in helping them establish healthier habits that will carry into adulthood.
The most effective approach to doing this, according to Brubaker, is one that focuses on physical and mental health.
Leading by example and encouraging small changes to the behaviors that contribute to a child’s unhealthy behaviors can get them on the right track.
Does my child have overweight?
Evaluating whether a child who’s still growing needs to lose weight can be confusing and thus should be left to a professional.
“Children should gain weight as they’re growing and getting taller,” Brubaker explains. “The question is, is their weight gain proportionate to their height gain?”
During annual well visits, your primary care provider will determine if your child’s BMI percentile — which takes into account the fact that kids grow at different rates depending on their age and sex – falls within a healthy range (between the 5th and 85th percentile).
But weight and BMI are only part of the equation. “We’re assessing general health, and there are a lot of factors that go into that, including diet and lifestyle,” she says.
For children who have overweight, Brubaker says she tends to steer away from giving them specific weight loss goals. “It’s really about the healthy behavior changes around weight,” she says. “I would rather have a patient come in and tell me, ‘I’m exercising five times a week,’ than say, ‘I lost five pounds.’”
Practical ways to help
Here are five ways you can help encourage those healthy behavior changes:
- Be a good role model. Living a healthy, active lifestyle and choosing nutritious foods are the best things parents can do to help their kids be healthy, Brubaker says. Including the whole family in a healthy eating and exercise plan keeps kids with excess weight from feeling singled out. “Households where parents can be active with their kids tend to be more successful in achieving a healthier lifestyle,” she says. Start a family soccer game in the backyard, or hit the trails for a weekend hike.
- Create a healthy environment at home. It seems simple, but creating an environment with minimal temptations also requires the whole family’s buy-in. “If we are putting our children in situations over and over again where unhealthy choices are confronting them on a daily basis, that’s very unfair,” Brubaker says. Keep healthy snacks for kids around, and unhealthy ones out of the house.
- Reward children with something other than food. Did your kid bring home a report card showing straight A’s? That’s great! Instead of planning a trip to the local pizza joint to celebrate, offer up something active like a bowling outing or a visit to the zoo instead.
- Cook as a family. If they’re involved in preparing their food, kids might be more likely to try certain things they wouldn’t otherwise eat, Brubaker suggests. “For families that are super motivated, having a garden and getting the kids invested in growing their own food is a good way to encourage fruits and vegetables, and it’s also a good way to get the kids more active,” she says.
- Stick to annual well visits. A primary care provider is a key source of knowledge and support for both kids and parents. “Unfortunately sometimes well visits get overlooked in the period where the kids are most likely to really start to gain weight,” Brubaker says. Commit to making sure your child sees his or her provider annually.